|One of the Middle Atlantic states of the United States. It is bordered by New Jersey, across the Delaware River, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Ohio, and Lake Erie and New York).
Area, 45,333 sq mi (117,412 sq km).
Pop. (2000) 12,281,054, a 3.4% increase since the 1990 census.
Largest city, Philadelphia.
Nickname, Keystone State.
Motto, Virtue, Liberty, and Independence.
State bird, ruffed grouse.
State flower, mountain laurel.
State tree, hemlock.
The Pittsburgh and Philadelphia metropolitan areas, situated at opposite ends of the state and dominating the commercial and industrial life of their regions, present startling contrasts in production and culture.
Agriculture is concentrated in the fertile counties of the southeast, and prized farmlands lie in the Great Appalachian Valley, rich with limestone soils; here the Pennsylvania Dutch farmer built a culture that is identified with the bountiful agrarian life. Principal agricultural products include dairy products, cattle, hay, corn, wheat, oats, mushrooms, poultry, potatoes, and fruit.
The great forests and lush vegetation that once covered the entire state were transformed during the Carboniferous period into deposits of anthracite coal in the northeast and extensive bituminous beds in the west. Large areas of woodland remain and, in some isolated sections, have retained an almost primitive wildness. Of the many historic sites and parks that have been preserved, those under federal ownership include Fort Necessity National Battlefield, Gettysburg National Military Park, and Independence and Valley Forge national historical parks. Harrisburg, the state capital, is located between the metropolitan areas of Philadelphia, the largest city, and Pittsburgh.
Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Copyright (c) 2003.
Economic Impact and Population of the Equine Industry
Pennsylvania's equine industry is a diverse and thriving industry that supports a variety of activities and business. The equine industry is a major contributor to the state's economy through employment, tax dollars, and assets.
The equine industry of Pennsylvania is the second largest animal agricultural industry in PA and directly accounts for over $10 billion of economic activity for Pennsylvania’s economy. There are currently 216,000 horses, mules, donkey and burros raised on 31,000 different locations across Pennsylvania. Equine owners devote 1.14 million acres of land in Pennsylvania for equine purposes with associated assets totaling nearly $8.27 billion. Overall, the equine industry provides 20,300 jobs annually to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
nnual Sale of Horses & Related Activities: $435 million
Related Assets/Investments: $8.27 billion
Total taxes: $53.2 million
Employment Compensation: $412.3 million
Economic Impact of Industry: $615.1 million